Tea scientifically known as camellia sinensis belongs to the family Theaceae. Tea is an aromatic beverage. It is the most consumed beverage after water.
In ancient times tea was used as a medicinal drink in China, the largest tea producer in the world. In fact, tea originated in China. Tea is mainly grown in tropical and sub tropical climates.
India is the second largest tea producing country in the world, consuming about 30 percent of global output. Nearly 70 percent of India’s tea produced is consumed domestically.
For nearly a century, India was the leading producer of tea, but with its increased land availability, China has now overtaken India in tea production.
Tea Trading Markets:
In India tea is made at home and tea stalls. Tea stalls can be found in almost every nook and corner of Indian streets. Indians mostly consumed milk and black tea.
The main varieties of tea consumed globally are white tea, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, herbal tea, rooibos tea, mate tea, blooming teas and tea blend.
The main tea varieties in India are Darjeeling, Assam, Dooars and Terai, Kangra, Nilgiri, Annamalais, Wayanad, Karnataka, Munnar and Travancore.
Tea plants thrive in hot and humid climates, but the suitable temperature is between 20 to 30 degree Celsius. Temperatures more than 35 degree Celsius and 10 degree Celsius are harmful to the bush.
Tea is grown mainly on hilltops to avoid stagnant water, as tea plants require plenty of rain.
India used to be one of the leading exporters of tea; but over the years, tea exports from India have fallen thanks to rising domestic consumption and increased global competition.
Major Tea producing states in India are Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Bihar and Orissa.
Major Tea producing countries are China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan, Iran and Argentina.
Top Tea exporters in the world are Sri Lanka, China, Kenya, India, United Arab Emirates, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, Indonesia and Vietnam.
Russia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Iran, Germany, Japan, Pakistan, France and Canada are the main Tea importing countries.
Local trading hubs for Tea in India are:Assam
(Kamrup, Sonitpur, Guwahati)Kerala
(Coimbatore, Chennai, Coonoor)Haryana
(Siliguri, Jalpaiguri, Kolkata,)Madhya Pradesh
(Ahmedabad, Kalol, Vadodara)Jarkhand
(Nagpur, Mumbai) and Delhi.