Mango is a fruit known as the ‘king of fruits’, due to its unique flavour and taste that have made it popular across the world. Its scientific name is ‘Mangifera indica’ and belongs to the family ‘Anacardiaceae’.
Mango is mostly consumed directly in the ripened form. And it is also used to make juices, jams, desserts, squashes, etc while raw mango is mostly used to make pickles, chutneys, etc and for culinary purposes.
Mango is native to India where it is the national fruit and considered sacred. Mango is reportedly in ordinary use for more than 5000 years and was first introduced to Europe by the Portuguese. Mango was also introduced by the Persian and Arab traders to various parts of the world. However, at present mango is reportedly cultivated in more than 100 countries across the world.
Normally, the mango trees prefer dry and humid conditions and thrive in alluvial, loamy, well-drained soils with sufficient organic matter. The trees grow up to 90 feet or more in height and take five to eight years to bear the fruits. However, grafted nursery saplings produce fruits after three to four years.
There are more than 500 known varieties of mango in the world that are different in size, shape, taste and fragrance, among which, most of them are cultivated in India. Among all the varieties of mango, ‘Alphonso’ mango is called the king of mango due to its irreplaceable flavour, fragrance and bright golden-yellow colour. However, the most expensive variety of mango in the world is ‘Miyazaki mango’ which is also known as 'the egg of the sun’ and costs more than Rs. 2.7 lakhs per kg. Other special and popular varieties are Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Malgova, Langra, Totapuri, Chausa, Dussehri, Kesar and Banganapalli.
The fruits vary in size from 5 to 16 cm in length and 5 to 14 cm in width and they weigh 150 – 650 gm, depending on the varieties.
Mangoes contain fiber, protein, fat, carbs, sugar, folate, copper, potassium, magnesium, thiamine, niacin, vitamin C, A, E, K and B6 which make them part of a healthy and nutritious diet. Mangoes are also purported to prevent diabetes, increase immunity strength, improve heart, digestive and eye health and lower the risk of certain cancers.
The largest producer of mango in the world is India which is also the largest consumer and exporter of the same. Other major producers of mangoes are China, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia and Nigeria and the other main exporters of mangoes are Thailand, Netherlands, Mexico, Peru, and Brazil while the US, the Netherlands, China, Germany, France, Canada, Japan and Spain are the main importers.
In India, the largest producer of mangoes is Uttar Pradesh, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Odisha.
The main trading markets of mango in India:
Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow, Paraspur, Prayagraj, Varanasi)
Andhra Pradesh(Vijayawada, Chittoor, Kakinada, Konduru)
Karnataka(Bengaluru, Vijayapura, Shivamogga, Mysuru)
Bihar(Chapra, Bhagalpur, Ghailar, Mehsi)
Names of mango in different Indian languages:
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