The United States Departmant of Agriculture (USDA) estimates India's cotton production for 2019/20 at 30.0 million 480-pound bales, down nearly 2 percent from last month, but up 13 percent from the previous year.
The year-to-year production increase is due to record area in the major cotton regions of Gujarat and Maharashtra, however, the month-to-month decrease is due to recent heavy rains. Harvested area is estimated at 13.0 million hectares, up slightly from the previous month and up 3 percent from 2018/19.
Yield is estimated at 502 kilograms per hectare, down 3 percent from last month, but up nearly 10 percent from last year.
Recent heavy rains reduced yields in the central cotton producing region. Although the Southwest Monsoon underperformed early in the season, it resumed and progressed to the major cotton areas in central India: Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in late July. Heavy rains continued in Madhya Pradesh through October. These heavy rains are causing high incidences of pests and disease.
There are reports of boll rot and pests impacting the cotton crop in Madhya Pradesh. In addition, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index anomaly in late October showed crop vigor below normal in the Madhya Pradesh area.
Cotton is grown exclusively in the kharif season from May to October, but harvest can continue into February.