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Beans is the most common name for the large seed variety of Fabaceae family. Beans are mainly used as food for humans and animals. Beans are native to Central and South America.
It is believed that Beans cultivation started about 7000 years ago. There are about 40000 varieties of beans around the world and only a limited variety is cultivated for consumption.
The main cultivated variates of Beans globally are Vicia, Phaseolus, Vigna, Cicer, Pisum, Lathyrus, Lens, Lablab, Glycine, Psophocarpus, Cajanus, Mucuna, Cyamopsis, Canavalia, Macrotyloma, Lupinus, Arachis.
Beans are basically summer crops, and for beans to grow, it needs warm temperature. For harvesting the beans, it takes about 55 to 60 days from planting. Beans are high in Fiber, Cholesterol, Protein, Carbohydrates, Foliate and Iron.
Beans is considered as a healthy food around the world, but some varieties have toxic effects too. Fava Beans and Red Kidney Beans are have toxic effects.
Beans can also cause digestive problems thanks to sugar like substance called Oligosaccharides. Thorough boiling or soaking of dry beans can reduce up to 75 percent of Oligosaccharides.
These digestive problems can be avoided to an extend by proper cooking and preparation method.
Major Indian Beans producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra.
Top global Dry Bean producers are Myanmar, India, Brazil, China, Mexico, Tanzania, United States of America, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda.
Major Dry Beans importing countries are India, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique Swaziland and South Africa.
Major Dry Beans exporting countries are China, Ethiopia, Kenya, United States of America and Poland.
Local trading hubs for Beans in India are
Jammu and Kashmir (Poonch)
Maharashtra (Bhandara, Satara)
Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore)
West Bengal (Kolkata, Murshidabad)