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Cashew is native to northeastern Brazil and its the scientific name is Anacardium occidentale. The English name has been derived from Caju the Portuguese name.
Cashew tree normally grows to a height of around 10 to 12 meters tall. Cashew was introduced to India by the Portuguese around 1560 and 1565. The cultivation of cashew then spread to South East Asia and Africa.
India is the largest producer of cashew with 23% global output. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are the main Indian states where most of the cashew processing factories are located.
Cashew contains carbohydrate fat, protein and vitamins. Cashew can also cause allergic problems with the contents of gastric acid and soluble oxalate.
There is about 30 species of insects which causes infection for cashew, due to which about 30 percent loss incur in the yield.
Cashew tree can thrive through high temperatures. They need a minimum of four months of dry season to get the best yield. Cashew tree thrives on high temperature mainly because of the deep root system.
Cashew harvesting is mainly done during February-May. The fruit is harvested before it falls naturally. The flowering starts around November and January, and the fruit will be ready for harvesting in two months. The young tree takes up to three years to flower after planting.
The commercial cultivation and growing of cashew is important in the states of India. The major cashew producing states are Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Jharkhand.
Top cashew producing countries are Vietnam, Nigeria, India, Ivory Coast, Benin, Philippines, Guinea, Tanzania, Indonesia and Brazil.
Major cashew exporting countries are United States of America, European Union, China, United Arab Emirates, Japan and Saudi Arabia.
Major cashew importers are United States of America, European Union, China, United Arab Emirates, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Netherlands, United Kingdom, France, Saudi Arabia and Spain.
Major local trading hubs in India:
Kerala (Kannur, Kollam, Kozhikode, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta, Trivandrum, Thrissur)
Tamil Nadu (Kanyakumari, Nagapattinam, Ariyalur, Pudukottai,Sivagangai),
Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Garo Hills, Mumbai)
Karnataka (Coorg, Udupi, South Canara, Uttar Kannada)
Andhra Pradesh (Srikakulam, Salur, East Godavari, Khammam, Vizianagaram, Vishakapatnam, West Godavari)
Goa (North Goa, East Goa)
Orissa (Gajapati, Khurda, Koraput, Puri)
Cashew Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Peddapuram, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, West Godavari, ) Goa(North Goa, South Goa, ) Karnataka(Udupi, Uttar Kannada, Coorg, ) Kerala(Kumily, Kollam, Kottarakara, Palakkad, Kannur, Kozhikode, Pathanamthitta, Trivandrum, Trissur, ) Maharashtra(Mumbai, Nachane, Ratnagiri, ) Meghalaya(South Garo Hills, ) Odisha(Uppalada, Koraput, Khordha, Gajapati , Puri, ) Tamil Nadu(Nagapattinam, Sivaganga, Kanyakumari, Ariyalur, Pudukottai, ) Telangana(Khammam, )
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