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Coffee is a flowering plant grown for its seeds. It is scientifically known as Coffea, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. Coffee seeds are also called coffee beans used to make Coffee beverages and products.
The two main commercially cultivated species of Coffee are Arabica and Robusta Coffee. The second most globally traded commodity is Coffee, behind Petroleum.
Arabica Coffee is a global variety which id superior quality than Robusta Coffee. About 70 percent of Coffee beans in the global market is dominated by Arabica Coffee species.
Although Robusta has twice the amount of caffeine as Arabica, Robusta is considered as the inferior quality. The main reason for considering Robusta as inferior quality is that it has much more bitter taste than Arabica, which is considered to be a defect.
Commercial Coffee plantation in India was started by the British during 18th century. By then India had emerged as the sixth largest Coffee producer in the world with a contribution of about 4 percent of the global production.
About 70 percent of India’s Coffee production is dominated by Robusta variety and the remaining 30 percent by Arabica variety. Well known processed Coffee produced in India are Robusta Kaapi Royale, Mysore Nuggets Extra Bold and Monsooned Malabar.
The temperature requirement for Coffee cultivation is mainly hot and humid climate with the range of 15 to 28 degree Celsius. Temperature above 30 degree celsius, frost and snowfall cannot be tolerated by the Coffee plant. Karnataka and Kerala contribute about 92 percent of the country’s total Coffee production.
Major Coffee producing states in India are Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
Brazil, Vietnam and Columbia are the three top coffee producing countries globally. Other Coffee producing countries are Indonesia, Ethiopia, India, Honduras, Uganda, Mexico and Guatemala.
Brazil is the largest exporter of Coffee in the world followed by Colombia, Vietnam, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Indonesia, Belgium, Honduras and Ethiopia.
The major Coffee importing countries are United States, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom and Netherlands.
The major trading hubs of Coffee in India are;
Kerala (Idukki, Wayanad)
Coffee is traded in the commodity future market at the National Multi Commodity Exchange of India ltd (NMCE) in India.