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Garlic, scientifically known as Allium sativum, belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae and genus Allium.

Garlic is native to Central Asia and has more than five thousand years of history as an important horticultural crop. It is widely used for its culinary and medicinal attributes.

Garlic is cultivated under a wide range of climatic conditions. However, it cannot stand too hot or cold weather. Thus, planting in India differs from region to region.

October-November period is the time in which garlic planting is done in Gujarat. In Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh, it is planted from August to October and in northern part of India September to November.

In India, several varieties of Garlic are produced. They include Bhima Omkar, Bhima Purple, Agrifound White (G-41), Yamuna Safed (G-1), Yamuna Safed-2 (G-50), Yamuna Safed-3 (G-282), Yamuna Safed-4 (G-323), Agrifound Parvati (G-313), Godavari (Selection-2), Shweta, T-56-4, Ooty 1, Gujrat Garlic-4, VLGarlic-1, DARL-52 (Raksha Sugandh).

The main Garlic producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan which produce about 80% of country's total output. Indian Garlic is well-known for its aroma and sweetness.

India is the second largest producer of Garlic in the world after China. After Onion, Garlic is the important bulb crop grown in India.

Globally, China is the most important Garlic producer, exporter and consumer, with their annual production and exports comprising over 70% of the total global output. Other major producing countries are India, Republic of Korea, Egypt, Russia, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Myanmar, United States of America and Ukraine.

The main global supplier of Garlic is China with 1.752 million tonnes, distantly followed by Spain (0.124 million tonnes) and Argentina (75000 tonnes), together making up 93% of the world's total exports.

The major Garlic importing countries are Bangladesh, Philippines, Singapore, UK and USA.

There is no organized futures market in Garlic in India.

Garlic Trading Markets:

Assam(Jorhat, ) Karnataka(Bangalore, Mysore(Bandipalya), ) Madhya Pradesh(Indore, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ratlam, ) Maharashtra(Mumbai, ) Rajasthan(Chhabra(Chhipabadod), Begu, ) Telangana(Nizamabad, Hyderabad, ) Uttar Pradesh(Etah, Farrukhabad , Mainpuri, ) West Bengal(Kolkata, )
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