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Groundnut, also known as Peanut, is an annual oil seed belonging to the Leguminosae family and the Papilionacea subfamily. It is a legume native to South America but now grown in diverse environments in six continents. Its scientific name is Arachis hypogea.
Groundnut seeds contain up to 50% oil and it is one of the important oilseed crops in the world. The oil extracted from groundnut is normally used for cooking; it is also used in paints, furniture polish etc.
People consume groundnuts as whole in roasted form. The oil cake meal left after the extraction of the oil is used as an animal fodder and fertilizer.
Bold or Runner, Java or Spanish and Red Natal are the main Indian varieties of groundnut.
More than 90 percent of groundnuts grown in India are in rain-fed conditions. In India, southern states grow groundnut as kharif and rabi crop.
As the summer crop, it is cultivated during January-May. Groundnut takes 90-130 days to mature.
European Union is the largest consumer of groundnut. Groundnuts are only produced marginally in the European Union countries.
In India, Groundnut production is mainly concentrated in the state of Gujarat, which accounts for over half of national production. Other Groundnut producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
China is the largest producer and consumer of Groundnut in the world. Though India is the largest cultivator of Groundnut crop in terms of acreage, low yields have kept the country in the second place in terms of output. Other groundnut producing countries are Nigeria, United States of America, Burma, Indonesia, Argentina and Sudan.
Major Groundnut exporting countries are Argentina, USA, India, China, Brazil, Nicaragua, Netherlands, Germany, Israel and Egypt.
Major Groundnut importing countries are Netherlands, Indonesia, Germany, Mexico, Russian Federation, Canada, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Poland.
Major trading hubs of Groundnut in India are:
Gujarat – Ahmedabad, Amreli, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Narmada, Navsari, Panchmahal, Patan, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Surat, Vadodara.
Andhra Pradesh – Ananthapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, East Godavari, Guntur, Karimnagar, Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool, Mahaboobnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Prakasam, Ranga Reddy, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Warrangal, West Godavari.
Madhya Pradesh - Badwani, Chhindwara, Jhabua, Khargone, Neemuch, Seoni, Shivpuri
Maharashtra - Ahmednagar, Dhule, Hingoli, Jalgaon, Kolhapur, Nashik, Nandurbar, Pune, Satara, Solapur, Mumbai.
Karnataka - Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Bellary, Chikkamagalur, Chitradurga, Devanagere, Gadag, Gulbarga, Hassan, Haveri, Kolar, Koppal, Mandya, Mysore, Raichur, Tumkur.
Tamil Nadu – Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kancheepuram, Karur, Madurai, Namakkal, Ariyalur, Pudukkottai, Perambalur, Ramnad, Salem, Sivagangai, Tiruvallur, Thiruvannamalai, Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Theni, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Vellore, Villupuram, Virudhunagar.
Odisha - Angul, Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Jagatsingpur, Jajpur, Kandhamal, Kendrapra, Keonjhar, Malkangiri, Puri.
Rajasthan - Chittorgarh, Jaipur, Swai Modhopur, Udiapur, Tonk.
Uttar Pradesh - Barabanki, Bijanur, Etawah, Hathras, Jhansi, Mainpuri, Saharanpur.
Chhattisgarh- Jashpur, korea, Mahasamund, Raigarh, Surguja.
Jharkhand – Gumla.
Groundnut is traded in Indian commodity exchanges namely, The Rajkot Seeds oil & Bullion Merchants` Association Ltd and The Bombay Commodity Exchange ltd.
Groundnut Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Guntur, Anantapur, Kadapa, Kurnool, Prakasam, East Godavari, Chittoor, Krishna, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, ) Chhattisgarh(Surguja, Jashpur, Korea(Koriya), Mahasamund, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Patan, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Amreli, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Navsari, Panchmahal, Surendranagar , Banaskantha, Narmada , ) Jharkhand(Gumla, ) Karnataka(Bangalore, Mysore(Bandipalya), Kolar, Chikkamagaluru, Chitradurga, Gadag, Gulbarga, Hassan, Koppal, Raichur, Davanagere, Tumkur, Bellary, Mandya, Haveri, ) Madhya Pradesh(Neemuch, Shivpuri, Seoni, Rajgarh, Jhabua, Khargone , Badwani(Barwani), Chhindwara, ) Maharashtra(Kolhapur, Mumbai, Solapur, AMPC, Jalgaon, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Nashik, Pune, Satara , Hingoli , Nandurbar, ) Odisha(Angul, Malkangiri , Kandhamal , Cuttack, Balasore, Bhadrak , Kendrapara, Kendujhar(Keonjhar), Puri, ) Pondicherry(Pondicherry, ) Rajasthan(Jaipur, Udaipur(F&V), Sawai Madhopur , Tonk , Chittorgarh, ) Tamil Nadu(Erode, Chennai, Virudhunagar, Theni, Vellore, Dharmapuri, Tiruchirappalli, salem, Coimbatore, Tiruvallur , Viluppuram, Tirunelveli, Kanchipuram, Karur, Thanjavur, Thoothukudi(Tuticorin) , Madurai, Sivaganga, Dindigul, Namakkal, Tiruvannamalai, Thiruvarur, ) Telangana(Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Karimnagar, Nalgonda, Ranga Reddy, Khammam, Warangal, ) Uttar Pradesh(Hathras, Etawah , Mainpuri, Saharanpur, Bijnor , Barabanki, Jhansi, )
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