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Guar is scientifically known as cyamopsis tetragonoloba, belonging to the family Fabaceae, which is the source of Guar Gum. It is also known as Gavar, Guwar or Guvar bean.
The ground endosperm of guar is called guar gum. Guar Gum is obtained from guar seed by two methods, namely milling and de-husking. It is a white-to- yellowish powder and nearly odorless.
Guar Gum is a natural polymer used in various industries like food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paper, textile, construction, oil & gas well drilling, mining etc.
The amazing property of guar gum is that it hydrates rapidly in cold water to attain uniform and very high consistency at relatively low densities.
Food and industrial grade powders are the two types of guar gum powders used. The grade of guar gum powder depends upon active matter content, granulation, viscosity and degree of substitution.
Pusa Mausami, Pusa Naubahar, Goma Manjari and Pusa Sadabahar are the commercial-hybrid varieties of guar gum in India. Well-drained sandy loam soil is best for guar cultivation. It can be cultivated in summer, monsoon or rainy season. June-July and October-November are the suitable months for sowing the guar crop.
Guar is cultivated in almost all parts of India, but Rajasthan is the largest producer of the commodity. Other major guar producing states are Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
India is the largest producer and exporter of guar gum in the world. The country exports various forms of guar products to number of countries. Other guar producing counties include Pakistan, Sudan, USA, South Africa, Brazil, Malawi, Zaire and Australia.
India is the world leader in guar gum exports followed by Pakistan. The other major guar gums exporting countries are USA, Italy, Morocco, Spain, France, Greece and Germany.
The major guar importing countries are Canada, China, Chile, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Ireland, Sweden, Greece, Portugal and Mexico.
Following are the main trading hubs for Guar Gum in India:
Rajasthan (Jodhupur, Sirsai, Bikaner, Nokha, Nagaur, Merta)
Guar Gum is traded in the commodity futures market at the National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd (NCDEX) in India.
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