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Kapas is the white colored fibrous substance seen covering the cotton seed, which is obtained from the cotton plant.

Kapas is separated by a process called ginning which separates the lint and the seed. The raw material used for making cotton yarn is called lint. Lint is used in making fabrics.

Cotton is a natural fiber. It is scientifically known as gossypium, belonging to the family Malvaceae. The plant is commercially grown to make cotton fabric and thread and it is one of the oldest human cultivated fibers.

April to May is the major cotton planting season in India. Nearly 60 per cent of area under cotton cultivation is rain-fed in the country.

The top three consumers of cotton are China, India and Pakistan. These three countries together account for two thirds of the world's consumption.

India produces large number of normal and hybrids varieties of cotton. However, 98% of the cotton production is contributed by about 25 varieties.

India is the largest producer of cotton in the world after China. About 70% of India's cotton is produced in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Other main cotton producing states include Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Orissa.

India, China and US contribute together almost 60% of total global cotton production. Major cotton producing countries are India, China, United States of America, Pakistan, Brazil, Uzbekistan, Australia, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Burkina Faso.

Major Kapas importing countries are China, Germany, Greece, South Africa, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, Turkey, Australia, Indonesia and Russia.

Major Kapas exporting countries are Austria, Italy, Benin, United States of America, United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, Netherlands, Malaysia, Iraq and Oman.

The major trading hubs of Cotton in India are:

Gujarat (Rajkot, Kadi, Ahmedabad and Surendranagar)

Andhra Pradesh (Adilabad, Guntur and Kurnool)

Madhya Pradesh (Indore, Sevdwa, Khategaon and Khargaon)

Punjab (Bathinda, Mansa and Ludhiana)

Haryana (Fatehabad, Hisar and Sirsa )

Maharashtra (Akola, Aurangabad, Mumbai, Nagpur)

Telangana (Adilabad , KarimNagar, Khammam , Warangal)

Karnataka (Gulbarga)

Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore)

Rajasthan (Sriganganagar ).

Kapas is traded in commodity futures market in India at NCDEX and MCX.

Kapas Trading Markets:

Andhra Pradesh(Guntakal, Markapur, Kurnool, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Kadi, Bavla, Surendranagar , ) Haryana(Sirsa, Fatehabad, Behal, Hisar, ) Karnataka(Gulbarga, ) Madhya Pradesh(Indore, Khargone , Sidhi, Khategaon, ) Maharashtra(Akola, Mumbai, Aurangabad, ) Punjab(Ludhiana, Mansa , Bathinda, ) Rajasthan(Sri Ganganagar, ) Tamil Nadu(Coimbatore, ) Telangana(Karimnagar, Khammam, Warangal, Adilabad, )

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