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Mushroom is scientifically known as Agaricus Bisporus, belonging to the family Agaricaceae.
Mushroom is a fruiting body of fungus, normally grown on its food source. Mushrooms are mainly of two types, edible and non-edible. Non-edible mushroom when consumed can cause gastrointestinal discomfort; it can even lead to death.
The main hazards caused by non-edible mushrooms when consumed are liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory failure etc. Edible mushrooms are consumed because of their nutritional value. It contains Vitamin B, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat, Niacin, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid etc.
About 20 species of mushroom are cultivated around the world. Edible mushroom types are Button Mushroom, Dhingri Mushroom and Paddy Straw Mushroom.
Among the three types of edible mushroom, button mushroom is most popularly and widely cultivated. In India, edible mushrooms are cultivated seasonally and all round the year. Mushrooms, which is not a plant, do not have any specific climatic conditions for growth.
Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jammu & Kashmir are the major Mushroom producing states in India. Although India produces Mushroom, Indian export contribution is only 1 percent in the world exports.
Major Mushroom producing countries are China, Italy, United State of America, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, France, Iran, Canada and United Kingdom.
Major Mushroom importing countries are United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, France, Belarus, Japan, Philippines and Malaysia.
Major Mushroom exporting countries are Netherlands, Poland, Belarus, China and India.
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