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Onion scientifically known as Allium Cepa belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae and sub family Allioideae. Bulb Onion or common Onion are the common names of Onion and it is the most widely cultivated form of genus Allium.
India is the second largest Onion producing country in the world after China. Indian Onions are available through the year. There are mainly two crop cycles in India--November-January and January-May.
Agrifound Dark Red, Agrifound Light Red, NHRDF Red, Agrifound White, Agrifound Rose and Agrifound Red , Pusa Ratnar, Pusa Red, Pusa White Round are the main Onion varieties in India.
The demand for Indian Onion is increasing in the world market. During 2015-16 the country exported about 1201245.29 tons of Onion worth Rs 2747.41 crores. The main import destinations of Indian Onions are Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, United Arab Emirates and Nepal.
Fertile and mellow soil, well-enriched with composts are suitable for Onion growing. High level of soil nutrients is needed for Onion cultivation.
Onions are sliced and used in various dishes. Onion releases a volatile gas while cutting causing a prickling sensation and uncontrollable tears.
Onion releases a catalyst called alliinases when the cells are damaged, usually by slicing, which is a defence mechanism. When this enzyme reaches the eye, the sensory neuron is activated and tears come to get rid of the irritant.
Onions was historically used as a medicine for cholera and plague. Onion contains natural sugar, Vitamins A, B6, C and E, and Sodium, Potassium, Iron and Dietry Fibre minerals.
China, the world’s largest Onion producing country, also tops the list as largest Onion consuming country followed by India, United States of America, Russia, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Tamil Nadu are the major Onion producing states in India.
Major Onion producing countries are China, India, United States of America, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Russia, Brazil and Mexico.
Major Onion exporting countries are Netherlands, Mexico, India, China, Egypt, Spain, United States Of America, New Zealand, France and Peru.
Major Onion importing countries are United States of America, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Canada, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and France.
Local trading hubs for Onion in India are:
Andhra Pradesh (Bishenpur, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Hyderabad, Kurnool, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam)
Telangana (Mahboob Nagar, Medak, Nizamabad, Ranga Reddy)
Bihar (Darbhanga, Madhepura, Nalanda, Sahasra, Sheikhpura, Vaishali)
Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Anand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Gandhinagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Vadodara)
Haryana (Ambala, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurgoan, Hisar, Jind, Jhajjar, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Mohindergarh, Panipat, Rewari, Roihtak, Sonepat, Yamunanagar, Solan)
Jharkhand (Bokaro, Chatra, Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridh, Hazaribag, Koderma, Lohardaga, Ranchi, East Singhbhum, West Singhbhum)
Karnataka (Banglore, Belgaum, Chitradurga, Dharwar, Kolar)
Madhya Pradesh (Indore)
Maharashtra (Ahmednagar, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Sangli, Satara, Solapur, Thane, Mumbai)
Orissa (Angul, Bhadrak, Bolangir, Ganjam, Kandhamal, Khurda, Koraput)
Punjab (Amritsar, Fategarhsahib, Gurudaspur, Hoshiapur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiyana, Patiala, Ropar)
Tamil Nadu (Chennai, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Namakkla, Thiruchirapalli, Virudhunagar)
Uttar Pradesh (Balrampur, Ballia, Barabanki, Basti, Chandauli, Gorakhpur, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, LakhmipurKheri, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mau, Siddharth nagar, Sonabhadra, Varanasi, Birbhum, Darjeeling, Hoogly)
West Bengal (Kolkata, Malda, Midnapur East, Midnapur West, Murshidabad, Uttar Dinajpur)
Delhi and Goa.
Onion Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Anantapur, Kadapa, Kurnool, Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, ) Assam(Kamrup, ) Bihar(Vaishali , Nalanda, Darbhanga, Madhepura, Saharsa, Sheikhpura, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Goa(Goa, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Patan, Gandhinagar, Anand, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Sabarkantha, Banaskantha, ) Haryana(Karnal, Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Jind , Jhajjar, Mahendragarh, Rewari, Sonipat, Hisar, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Ambala, Kaithal, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, ) Himachal Pradesh(Solan, ) Jharkhand(East Singhbhum, Dumka , Bokaro , Chatra , Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Lohardaga, Ranchi, West Singhbhum , ) Karnataka(Bangalore, Hubli (Amaragol), Kolar, Chitradurga, Dharwad, Belgaum, ) Maharashtra(Sangli, Mumbai, Solapur, Lasalgaon, Pimpalgaon, Ahmednagar, Nashik, Pune, Satara , Raigad , Thane, ) Manipur(Bishnupur, ) Odisha(Koraput, Angul, Kandhamal , Khordha, Ganjam , Bhadrak , Balangir, ) Punjab(Amritsar (Amritsar Mewa Mandi), Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Patiala, Rupnagar, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Fatehgarh Sahib, ) Tamil Nadu(Chennai, Virudhunagar, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore, Kanchipuram, Madurai, Dindigul, Namakkal, ) Telangana(Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Ranga Reddy, ) Uttar Pradesh(Chandauli, Maharaj ganj, Ballia, Mau, Lucknow, Barabanki, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Balrampur, Ghaziabad, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Varanasi, Siddharth Nagar, Sonabhadra, Basti , ) West Bengal(Kolkata, Murshidabad, Uttar Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Malda , East Midnapore, West Midnapore, Birbhum, )
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