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Paddy, scientifically known as oryza sativa is an individual rice kernel, which is either in natural or unprocessed state. The name paddy is derived from the Malay word padi.
Paddy field farming originated in China.
Paddy fields are most common in India. There are three seasons for growing rice in India: autumn, winter and summer. These three seasons are named according to the seasons of harvest of the crop.
Autumn rice is known as pre-kharif rice. The sowing of pre-kharif rice is taken up during May to August. The time of sowing slightly differs from state to state as per weather conditions and rainfall pattern. It is harvested in September-October.
The sowing time of winter (kharif) rice is during June-July and it is harvested in November-December. The sowing time of summer rice is from November to February and harvesting time is from March to June.
When irrigation is available, rice farmers typically plant Green Revolution rice varieties allowing three growing seasons per year.
Several varieties of rice including brown types are grown across the Asian countries.
India has the largest paddy output in the world. In India, West Bengal is the largest rice producing state followed by Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Telangana, Punjab, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Tamil Nadu and Haryana.
China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Brazil, Japan and Pakistan are the major Paddy producing countries.
India, Thailand, United States, Pakistan, Vietnam, Italy, Uruguay, Brazil, Cambodia and Australia are the main exporters of rice.
China, Nigeria, Philippines, Iran, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, European Union, Iraq, Senegal and Malaysia are the major importers of rice.
Local trading hubs of paddy in India are:
Andhra Pradesh - Anantapur, Chittoor , Kadapa, East Godavari, Kakinada, Guntur, Vijayawada, Krishna, Kurnool, Nellore.
Telangana - Adilabad, Nirmal, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Ranga Reddy.
Arunachal Pradesh - Roing, Pasighat, Lohit.
Assam - Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Cachar, Dibrugarh, Darrang,Dhubri, Goalpara, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat , Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Morigaon, Naogaon, Nalbari, Sonitpur, Tinsukia.
Bihar - Aurangabad , Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Bhojpur, Buxar, Darbhanga, East Champaran, Gaya, Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Khagaria, Kaimur, Lakhisarai, Madhuban, Madhepura, Nalanda, Nawada, Patna, Rohtas, Saharsa, Supaul, Samastipur, Sheikhpura, Sitamarhi, Vyshali, West Champaran.
Chandigarh - Bastar, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Jani Geer, Jashpur, Kanker, Kabirdham, Korba, Korea, Mahasamund, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Surguj.
Delhi - Narela (North West Delhi district).
Gujarat - Ahmedabad, Anand, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Kheda, Mehsana, Navsari, Panchmahal, Sabarkantha, Surat, Vadodara.
Haryana - Ambala, Faridabad , Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jind, Jhajjar, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonipat, Yamuna Nagar.
Himachal Pradesh - Bilaspur, Sirmaur, Solan, Una.
Jharkhand - Chatra, Deoghar, Dumka, Giridih, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Lohardaga, Pakur, Latehar, Sahibganj, East Singhbhum, West Singhbhum.
Karnataka - Bengaluru, Belgaum, Bellary, Chamarajanagar, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Dharwad, Hassan, Kodagu, Kolar, Koppal, Mandya, Mysore, Raichur, Shimoga, South Canara, Tumakuru, Udupi, Uttara Kannada.
Madhya Pradesh - Balaghat, Dindori, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Katni, Mandla, Rewa, Seoni, Shahdol, Sheopur.
Maharashtra - Bhandara, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Nashik, Nandurbar, Pune, Raigad, Thane.
Manipur - Bishnupur, Imphal East, Thoubal.
Meghalaya - West Garo Hills.
Nagaland - Mon District, Mokokchung, Phek, Wokha, Zunheboto.
Odisha - Balasore, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Balangir, Boudh, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Ganjam, Jajpur, Jharsuguda, Kalahandi, Kendrapara, Kendujhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Sonepur.
Punjab - Amritsar, Bathinda, Faridkot, Fatehgarh, Firozpur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Mansa, Moga, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Nawanshahr, Patiala, Rupnagar, Sangrur.
Rajasthan – Hanumangarh.
Tamil Nadu - Cuddalore, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Dharma Puri, Erode, Kancheepuram, Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Salem, Sivagangai, Tiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur, Theni, Thirunelveli, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar, Pondicherry.
Tripura - Dhalai, North Tripura, South Tripura, West Tripura.
Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) - Haridwar, Udham Singh Nagar, Poody.
Uttar Pradesh - Aligarh, Allahabad, Ambedkar Nagar, Amroha, Badaun, Bagpat, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda, Bareilly, Barabanki, Bijanur, Bulandshahr, Chandauli, Deoria, Etah, Faizabad, Fatehpur, Gautam Budh Nagar, Gonda, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Ghaziabad, Hardoi, Hathras, Jaunpur, Jhansi, Kanpur, Lakhimpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mainpuri, Mathura, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Pilibhit, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Rampur, Saharanpur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Shahjahanpur, Sitapur, Sonbhadra, Shravasti, Sultanpur, Unnao, Varanasi.
West Bengal - Bankura, Birbhum, Bardhaman, Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Hoogly, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Malda, Nadia,North 24 Parganas, Purulia, Purba Medinipur, Paschim Medinipur, South 24 Parganas, Uttar Dinajpur.
Paddy Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Guntur, Anantapur, Kadapa, Kurnool, East Godavari, Vijayawada, Kakinada, Chittoor, Nellore, Krishna, ) Assam(Jorhat, Barpeta, Hailakandi, Karimganj, Morigaon, Tinsukia, Sonitpur, Cachar, Bongaigaon, Darrang, Golaghat, Dhubri , Dibrugarh, Nagaon , Kokrajhar, Nalbari , Chirang , ) Bihar(East Champaran, Gopalganj , Madhubani, Nawada, Patna, West Champaran, Sitamarhi , Bhagalpur, Samastipur, Vaishali , Nalanda, Darbhanga, Madhepura, Saharsa, Bhojpur, Jamui , Jehanabad, Gaya, Lakhisarai, Kaimur, ) Chhattisgarh(Surguja, Bilaspur, Jashpur, Korea(Koriya), Mahasamund, Raigarh, Bastar, Rajnandgaon, Durg, Kabirdham, Raipur, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Anand, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Kheda, Mehsana, Navsari, Panchmahal, Sabarkantha, ) Haryana(Karnal, Sirsa, Fatehabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Jind , Jhajjar, Sonipat, Hisar, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Ambala, Kaithal, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, ) Himachal Pradesh(Solan, Sirmaur , Una , ) Jharkhand(East Singhbhum, Gumla, Dumka , Pakur , Latehar, Sahibganj , Deoghar, ) Karnataka(Bengaluru, Mysore(Bandipalya), Kolar, Chitradurga, Hassan, Koppal, Udupi, Raichur, Uttar Kannada, Coorg, Davanagere, Shimoga, Tumkur, Bellary, Chamarajanagar, Mandya, Dharwad, Belgaum, ) Madhya Pradesh(Shahpura(Jabalpur) , Seoni, Rewa, Mandla, Gwalior, Shahdol, ) Maharashtra(Kolhapur, Nagpur, APMC Dindori, Aurangabad, Dhule, Nashik, Pune, Raigad , Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Bhandara, Nandurbar, Thane, Gondia, ) Manipur(Thoubal , Imphal, Bishnupur, ) Meghalaya(West Garo Hills, ) Nagaland(Mon , Mokokchung , Wokha, ) Odisha(Koraput, Bargarh , Rayagada, Malkangiri , Khordha, Cuttack, Gajapati , Ganjam , Nayagarh, Balasore, Bhadrak , Kendrapara, Kendujhar(Keonjhar), Puri, Balangir, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj , Jharsuguda, Jajpur, Dhenkanal, Boudh, ) Pondicherry(Pondicherry, ) Punjab(Amritsar (Amritsar Mewa Mandi), Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, NawanShahar, Patiala, Rupnagar, sangrur, Mansa , Firozpur, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Sri Muktsar Sahib, ) Rajasthan(Hanumangarh, Begu, Pratapgarh, ) Tamil Nadu(Erode, Bhuvanagiri, Panruti, Virudhunagar, Theni, Vellore, Dharmapuri, Tiruchirappalli, salem, Coimbatore, Cuddalore , Tiruvallur , Viluppuram, Tirunelveli, Kanchipuram, Karur, Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Ramanathapuram(Ramnad), Madurai, Sivaganga, Dindigul, Tiruvannamalai, Pudukottai, ) Telangana(Nizamabad, Khanapur, Luxettipet, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Karimnagar, Nalgonda, Ranga Reddy, Khammam, Adilabad, Nirmal, ) Tripura(West Tripura, North Tripura, Dhalai , South Tripura , ) Uttar Pradesh(Muzaffarnagar, Chandauli, Kanpur, Meerut, Aligarh, Fatehpur, Hathras, Maharaj ganj, Bareilly, Budaun , Bulandshahr , Gautam Budh Nagar , Pilibhit, Etah, Mainpuri, Bagpat, Ballia, Saharanpur, Lucknow, Bijnor , Sambhal, Barabanki, Rampur, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Allahabad, Bahraich, Banda, Gonda , Hardoi , Amroha(Juotiba), Jhansi, Unnao, Raebareli, Mathura, Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Ghaziabad, Sulthanpur, Deoria, Faizabad, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Varanasi, Buxar, ) Uttarakhand(Haridwar, Udham Singh Nagar, ) West Bengal(Jalpaiguri, Nadia, Uttar Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Bankura, Malda , Burdwan(Bardhaman), North 24 Parganas, Purulia, East Midnapore, West Midnapore, South 24 Parganas, Birbhum, Howrah, )
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