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The scientific name of potato is solanum tuberosum, belonging to the family Solanaceae. It produces white or blue flowers and yellow-green berries.
Potato tubers grow under the soil. It contains starch with brown or yellow to red outer skin.Spud, Irish potato, Spanish potato are the common varieties of potatoes.
Potatoes are rich in vitamin C, high in potassium and an excellent source of fiber. It has anti acid properties. It reduces inflammation. So, potato is used as vegetable and medicine.
Potato needs cool climate to grow. Potatoes are usually grown from seed potatoes. Each piece of seed potato must have two eyes. The potato plant is ready for harvesting within 10 weeks, usually in early July to late August.
Potato was first cultivated in Peru and Bolivia in South America. In 1536, the Spanish carried Potato from America to Europe. Asia, Africa and Latin America are the major consumers of potato.
Potato is said to have reached India in late 16th and early 17th centuries. India is today one of the largest potato producers in the world. Potato is not a common food crop in India, but it is a cash crop that provides significant income to farmers.
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Assam, Karnataka, Haryana and Jharkand are the major potato producing states in India.
China, India, United States of America, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Netherlands, Poland and France are the major potato producing countries.
Netherlands, France, Germany, China, Egypt, United States, Canada, Belgium, United Kingdom, Spain, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan, Denmark and India are the main potato exporting countries.
Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Russia, France, United States and Portugal are the major import destinations of potato.
Local trading hubs for Potato in India are:
(Andhra Pradesh)Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam
(Assam)Barpeta, Bongaigaon , Dhubri, Darrang, Dibrugarh, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, East Karbi Anglong , Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Morigaon, Naugaon, Nalbari, Sivasagar, Sonitpur, Tinsukia
(Bihar)Begusarai, Darbhanga, East Champaran, Gopalganj, Madhepura, Nawada, Saharsa, Supaul, Saran, Vaishali
(Delhi)Azadpur, Okhla, Gazipur, Keshopur
(Goa)North Goa and South Goa
(Gujarat)Ahmedabad, Anand, Bharuch, Dahod, Gandhinagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Navsari, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Vadodara
(Haryana)Ambala, Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jind, Jhajjar, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Mahendragarh, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Sonipat, Yamuna Nagar
(Himachal Pradesh)Chamba, Kullu, Mandi, Shimla, Solan, Una
(Jammu and Kashmir)Budgam, Doda, Jammu
(Jharkhand)Bokaro, Chatra, Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridih, Hazaribag, Koderma, Lohardaga, Ranchi, East Singhbhum, West Singhbhum
(Karnataka)Bangalore, Belgaum, Coorg, Hassan, Kolar
(Madhya Pradesh)Ujjain, Indore
(Maharashtra)Ahmednagar, Pune, Sangli, Satara, Thane
(Manipur)Bishnupur, Imphal East, Senapati, Tamenglong, Thoubal, Ukhrul
(Meghalaya)East Khasi Hills, West Garo Hills, West Khasi Hills
(Nagaland)Dimapur, Kohima, Mokokchung, Wokha
(Odisha) Cuttack, Jharsuguda, Kendrapara, Khordha, Khordha, Puri, Rayagada
(Punjab) Amritsar, Fatehgarh Sahib, Firozpur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Patiala, Rupnagar, Sangrur
(Tamil Nadu) Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur
(Tripura) Dhalai, North Tripura, South Tripura, West Tripura
(Uttarakhand ) Dehradun , Haridwar, Udham Singh Nagar
(Uttar Pradesh) Agra, Azamgarh, Allahabad , Ambedkar Nagar, Bagpat, Bahraic, Balrampur, Ballia, Banda, Barabanki, Bijnor, Bulandshahr, Chandauli, Chitrakoot Dham, Deoria, Etawah, Faizabad, Fatehpur, Farrukhabad, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, Amroha, Kanpur, Lakhimpur, Lucknow, Mahoba, Mainpuri, Maharajganj, Mau, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Raebareli, Varanasi
(West Bengal) Bankura, Birbhum, Bardhaman, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Howrah, Kolkata, Purba Medinipur, Murshidabad, Nadia
Potato Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Visakhapatnam, ) Assam(Jorhat, Barpeta, Hailakandi, Kamrup, Karimganj, Morigaon, Tinsukia, Sonitpur, Bongaigaon, Darrang, Karbi Anglong, Dhubri , Dibrugarh, Nagaon , Kokrajhar, Sivasagar, Nalbari , ) Bihar(East Champaran, Gopalganj , Nawada, Saran, Vaishali , Darbhanga, Madhepura, Saharsa, Supaul , ) Delhi(Azadpur, Okhla, Keshopur , ) Goa(North Goa, South Goa, ) Gujarat(Rajkot, Patan, Gandhinagar, Anand, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Ahmedabad(Fruit Market, Naroda), Bharuch, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Navsari, Sabarkantha, ) Haryana(Karnal, Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Jind , Jhajjar, Mahendragarh, Rewari, Sonipat, Hisar, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Ambala, Kaithal, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, ) Himachal Pradesh(Shimla, Hamirpur, Mandi, Solan, Chamba, Kullu, Una , ) Jammu and Kashmir(Narwal Jammu, Budgam, Doda, ) Jharkhand(East Singhbhum, Dumka , Bokaro , Chatra , Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Lohardaga, Ranchi, West Singhbhum , ) Karnataka(Bangalore, Kolar, Hassan, Coorg, Belgaum, ) Madhya Pradesh(Indore(F&V), Ujjain, ) Maharashtra(Sangli, Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara , Thane, ) Manipur(Thoubal , Imphal, Bishnupur, Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Senapati, ) Meghalaya(West Khasi Hills, East Khasi Hills, West Garo Hills, ) Nagaland(Dimapur, Mokokchung , Kohima, Wokha, ) Odisha(Rayagada, Khordha, Cuttack, Kendrapara, Puri, Jharsuguda, ) Punjab(Amritsar (Amritsar Mewa Mandi), Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Patiala, Rupnagar, sangrur, Firozpur, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Fatehgarh Sahib, ) Rajasthan(Begu, ) Tamil Nadu(Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore, Thanjavur, ) Telangana(Hyderabad, ) Tripura(North Tripura, Dhalai , South Tripura , ) Uttar Pradesh(Muzaffarnagar, Chandauli, Kanpur, Meerut, Agra, Bilsi, Sirsaganj, Fatehpur, Chitrakoot Dham, Jalaun, Mahoba, Maharaj ganj, Bulandshahr , Etawah , Farrukhabad , Mainpuri, Bagpat, Ballia, Mau, Lucknow, Azamgarh, Bijnor , Barabanki, Ghazipur, Allahabad, Bahraich, Banda, Gonda , Amroha(Juotiba), Jhansi, Raebareli, Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Ghaziabad, Deoria, Faizabad, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Varanasi, ) Uttarakhand(Dehradun, Haridwar, Udham Singh Nagar, ) West Bengal(Siliguri, Champadanga, Kolkata, Murshidabad, Nadia, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Bankura, Burdwan(Bardhaman), East Midnapore, Birbhum, Howrah, )
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