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Rice is the staple diet of most Asians and it is the largest consumed cereal grain in the world. Rice belongs to the grass species Oryza Sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza Glaberrima (African rice). Latest research reports point to the origin of rice to Australia.
According to a study published by Scientific Reports, the varieties of rice being cultivated today around the world have been born out of the ‘uncontaminated wild rice’ grown in northern Australia hundreds of years ago.
High rainfall is most suited for rice cultivation and so rice is abundantly grown in countries with lots of rains. The great geographical advantage of cultivating rice is that it can just be grown anywhere between sea level to an altitude of 1000 feet above the sea level.
Cooking preferences for rice vary from region to region, and culture to culture in different countries. The rice consumed by Indians may not be of appetite to the people of Thailand.
Rice in India is cultivated during three seasons: autumn, winter and summer.
These three seasons are named according to the season of harvest of the crop.
Autumn rice is known as pre-kharif rice. The sowing of pre-kharif rice is taken up during May to August. The time of sowing slightly differs from state to state according to weather conditions and rainfall pattern. It is harvested in September-October. The sowing time of winter-kharif rice is June-July and it is harvested in November-December. The sowing time of summer rice is November to February and harvesting season is from March to June.
India is the second largest rice producing country followed by China. Other major rice producing countries are Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Bangladesh and Burma.
India accounts for about 20 percent of world's rice production. The major rice producing Indian states are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Orissa.
The major rice importing countries are China, Nigeria, Philippines, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia.
The major rice exporting countries are India (accounts for about 30 percent of the total exports), Thailand, United States, Pakistan, Vietnam, Italy and Uruguay.
The major rice trading markets in India are the following:
Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Ongole, Vijaywada, Machilipattanum, Nellore, Kovur, Ramchandra Puram, Khamam, Mahbubnagar, Nandyal, Siddipet, Karimnagar, Jagityal, Warangal, Nizamabad, Boddhan, Suryapet, Miryalgod, Lunettipet).
West Bengal (Haldibari, Tufanganj, Alipurdwar, Siliguri, Islampur, Kandi, Bethudahari, Karmpur, Panduah, Kalna, Katwa, Burdwan, Rampurhat, Suri, Bolpur, Bishnupur, Bankura, Midnapore, Jhargram).
Uttar Pradesh (Sahajhanpur, Pilibhit, Hardoi, Ghaziabad, Sitapur, Mainpuri, Pukhrayan, Barilly, Chandauli, Powayan, Puranpur, Saharanpur, Golapokarannath, Baheri, Meerut, Dudhi, Bulandshahart, Basti, Sultanpur Kasganj, Kasipur, Rampur, Badaun, Bijnor, Moradabad, J.B. Phulnagar).
Bihar (Patna City, Ara, Buxar, Mohonia, Sasaram, Siwan, Maharajganj, Muzaffarpur, Motihari, Narkatiaganj, Darbhanga, Madhubani,Sahrsa, Tribeniganj, Samstipur, Katihar, Bhagalpur, Munger, Aurangabad, Gaya, Sonbarsa, Betiah, Farbisganj).
Tamil Nadu (Thanjavar, Thiruvannamabai, Villupurm, Nagpattinum, Gimbatore, Erode, Trichitapallai, Pudukottai, Madurai, Dindigal).
Rice Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Guntur, Ongole(Rythu Bazar), Vijayawada, Nellore, Machilipattanum, Kovur, Nandyal, ) Bihar(Madhubani, Patna, Siwan, Bhagalpur, Samastipur, Darbhanga, Saharsa, Katihar , Gaya, Sasaram, Narkatiaganj, Motihari, Bettiah, Forbesganj, Arrah, Mohania, Sonbarsha, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Haryana(Karnal, ) Maharashtra(Aurangabad, ) Manipur(Bishnupur, ) Punjab(Jalalabad, ) Tamil Nadu(Erode, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore, Viluppuram, Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Ramanathapuram(Ramnad), Madurai, Dindigul, Tiruvannamalai, Pudukottai, ) Telangana(Nizamabad, Luxettipet, Mahbubnagar, Karimnagar, Khammam, Warangal, Suryapeta, Boddhan, Miryalaguda, Siddipet, ) Uttar Pradesh(Muzaffarnagar, Chandauli, Meerut, Kasganj , Maharaj ganj, Bareilly, Budaun , Bulandshahr , Pilibhit, Mainpuri, Saharanpur, Bijnor , Rampur, Hardoi , Sitapur, Ghaziabad, Sulthanpur, Moradabad, Basti , Buxar, Gola Gokarannath, Baheri, Dudhi, Powayan, ) Uttarakhand(Kashipur, ) West Bengal(Siliguri, Bethuadahari, Islampur Bazar, Bankura, Burdwan(Bardhaman), East Midnapore, Cooch Behar, Haldibari, Karimpur, Pandua, Kalna, Katwa, Rampurhat, Bolpur, Jhargram, Alipurduar, Suri, )
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