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Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate. It is an end-product of the process called photosynthesis. It a process from which plants convert sun’s energy to produce their food. Basically, monosaccharides is the name called for simple sugar and glucose, fructose and galactose.
Sugar is mainly derived from sugarcane and sugar beet. The name sugar is derived from the Sanskrit word sharkara.
Sugarcane and sugar beet juices are firstly evaporated and then processed. This process is known as crystallization. After crystallization, sugar appears as a white or transparent, crystal-shaped substance.
Sugarcane as a domesticated crop is said to have originated in New Guinea. Sugarcane is consumed raw. Sugar is mainly used to add sweet taste to various cuisines and for preserving them.
The countries which produce sugar consumes about 3/4ths of the total sugar production globally, and the rest is named as world sugar and traded around the world.
Tropical regions with hot and humid climate is most suited for sugarcane and sugar beet needs a cooler climate.
Eight months of high temperature and frost free weather condition is a must for sugarcane growth. Lighter soil with heavy clay and heavier soils are suitable for sugarcane cultivation, when provided with adequate irrigation.
The production of sugarcane solely depends upon the extent of rainfall received. It is an annual crop planted during February to April and harvested during October to March.
In the case of sugar beet, roots are used to produce sugar. March and April are the months when sugar beet is sown and September to December is the harvesting time.
India is the second largest sugar producer in the world. The country produces about 22 million tons of sugar annually. The major sugar producing Indian states are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Bihar. Sugar is also produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Assam but they are not major producing states.
Around 120 countries in the world produce sugarcane and the total sugar production around the world is about 135 to 145 million ton. Brazil takes the highest spot in the global sugar production followed by India, China, Mexico, Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, Australia , Indonesia and United States.
Major sugar importing countries are United States, China, Bangladesh, Malaysia, South Korea, Italy, Indonesia, United Kingdom, Algeria and United Arab Emirates.
Major sugar exporting countries are Brazil, Thailand, India, France, Guatemala, Mexico, Germany, Cuba, Belgium, Colombia, Swaziland, United Arab Emirates, Netherlands, Mauritius and Poland.
The sugar trading hubs in India are the following:
Uttar Pradesh (Khatauli, Deoband, Shamli, Bareilly, Muzaffarnagar),
Maharashtra (Mumbai, Kolhapur, Solapur),
Andhra Pradesh (Vijaywada),
West Bengal (Kolkata),
Tamil Nadu (Chennai),
Rajasthan (Hanumangarh) and Delhi.
Sugar is also traded at the National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd (NCDEX) as Sugar M Grade and internationally in The New York Board of Trade (NYBOT) and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE).
Sugar Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Vijayawada, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, ) Maharashtra(Mumbai Naka, Vashi, Kolhapur, Solapur, ) Punjab(Ludhiana, ) Rajasthan(Sri Ganganagar, ) Tamil Nadu(Chennai, ) Telangana(Hyderabad, ) Uttar Pradesh(Muzaffarnagar, Khatauli, Deoband, Shamli, Bareilly, ) West Bengal(Kolkata, )
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