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The scientific name of sugarcane is saccharum, belonging to the grass family of Poaceae. Sugarcane is native to South East Asia and Western India.
Global sugarcane production is around 1333 million tons and it is cultivated in an area of about 20.42 million hectares.
Round 70 percent of sugar is produced from sugarcane and the remaining 30 percent from sugar beet. White sugar, brown sugar (Khandsari), Jaggery (Gur) and ethanol are the main products from sugarcane juice, bagasse (used in paper industry) and molasses (raw material for alcohol) are the byproducts of sugar industry.
Sugarcane is also used in the motor vehicles as a replacement of fossil fuels.
Tropical regions with hot and humid climate is most suited for sugarcane and sugar beet needs a cooler climate.
Eight months of high temperature and frost free weather condition is a must for sugarcane growth. Lighter soil with heavy clay and heavier soils are suitable for sugarcane cultivation, when provided with adequate irrigation.
The production of sugarcane solely depends upon the extent of the rainfall received. It is an annual crop planted during February to April and harvested during October to March.
In the case of sugar beet, roots are used to produce sugar. March and April are the months when sugar beet is sown and September to December is the harvesting time.
Around 120 countries in the world produces sugarcane and the total sugar production around the world is about 135 to 145 million ton. Brazil takes the highest spot in the global sugarcane production followed by India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Colombia, Philippines, Indonesia and United States of America
India is the second largest producer in the world which produces approximately 341,400 TMT of sugarcane annually. The major sugarcane producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Uttarakhand.
The major sugarcane importing countries are China, Indonesia, United States, Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, South Korea, Algeria, Malaysia, Iran, India, Syria, Japan, Canada and Morocco.
Major sugarcane exporting countries are Brazil, Thailand, Guatemala, Mexico, South Africa, El Salvador, India, Cuba, Swaziland, Nicaragua, Zambia, Mozambique, Fiji, Philippines and France.
The local trading hubs of sugarcane in India are
Rajasthan (East Champaran, West Champaran)
Bihar (Gopalganj, Madhubani, Nawada, Saran, Siwan, Patna, Purnea, )
Orissa (Bargarh, Sonepur)
Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore, Villupuram)
Uttar Pradesh (Pilibhit)
West Bengal (Kolkata) and Delhi