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Tomato is a red coloured fruit belonging to Solanum lycopersicum or Solanaceae family. Tomato originated in Central and South America. Tomatoes are botanically a fruit, but it is generally considered as a vegetable.
Countries across the world use tomatoes as a key ingredient in their dishes, but there are different scenarios too. For instance, the people of Florence, Italy used tomatoes as mere tabletop decoration until the late 17th century. Americans believed tomatoes were poisonous and they did not harvest tomatoes until 1835.
The most common tomato varieties are beefsteak, cherry, heirloom, roma, pear, plum, grape, campari, tomberries and oxheart.
Tomatoes were introduced to India during 16th century by Portuguese explorers. Tomatoes grow and adapt well to the Indian soil conditions. Arka Abha, Arka Saurabh, Pusa Gaurav, Angurlata, Pant Bahar, Ratna and Rupali are the most commonly grown Indian tomato varieties.
Flooding or furrow method is used to grow locally available tomato varieties. Winter and summer seasons are the main cultivation periods for tomato. The crop cannot thrive in severe frost conditions. It grows well under an average temperature of around 21 degree Celsius to 23 degree Celsius but commercially it may be grown at temperatures ranging from 18 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius.
Tomato planting is only done after 3-4 weeks of sowing of seeds. Soil fertility, variety and season are the main factors that tomato planting depends on.
India, the second largest grower of Tomato produces, has an annual output of about 13 million tons. The major tomato producing Indian states are Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
The major tomato producing countries are China, India, United States, Spain, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Italy, Brazil and Mexico.
Mexico, Netherlands, Spain, Morocco, Turkey, France, United States, Jordan, Canada, Belgium, Italy, China, Poland, Belarus and India are the top exporters of tomato.
Main tomato importing countries are Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, France,
Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Belgium, Italy, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Belarus, Austria and Denmark.
Local Trading hubs for tomato in India are
Andhra Pradesh (Chittoor)
Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Anand, Banaskantha, Dahod, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Rakjot)
Haryana (Faridabad, Fatehabad, Hisar, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Panipat)
Himachal Pradesh (Bilaspur, Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Shimla, Solan)
Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu)
Maharashtra (Ahmendnagar, Pune, Satara)
Punjab (Amritsar, Hoshiapur)
Tamil Nadu (Kanchipuram, Salem)
Uttaranchal (Haridwar, Nainital)
Uttar Pradesh (Azamgarh, Bijnor, Fatehpur)
West Bengal (Bankura, kolkata, Malda, Murshidabad)
Tomato Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Chittoor, ) Chhattisgarh(Bilaspur, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Anand, Dahod(Veg. Market), Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, ) Haryana(Karnal, Fatehabad, Faridabad, Hisar, Kurukshetra, Panipat, ) Himachal Pradesh(Shimla, Kangra, Solan, Chamba, Kullu, ) Jammu and Kashmir(Narwal Jammu, ) Karnataka(Mysore(Bandipalya), Kolar, ) Kerala(Kozhikode, ) Maharashtra(Pimpalgaon, Ahmednagar, ) Nagaland(Dimapur, ) Odisha(Khordha, ) Punjab(Amritsar (Amritsar Mewa Mandi), Hoshiarpur, ) Tamil Nadu(salem, Kanchipuram, ) Telangana(Hyderabad, ) Uttar Pradesh(Agra, Aligarh, Fatehpur, Azamgarh, Bijnor , ) Uttarakhand(Haridwar, Nainital, ) West Bengal(Kolkata, Murshidabad, Bankura, Malda , )
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