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Urad or Black Gram which has the scientific name Vigna Mungo belongs to the family Leguminosae and sub family Papilionaceae. Urad is a good source of phosphoric acid, proteins, carbohydrates and calcium.
Urad originated in India. In countries like India and Pakistan, Urad is a highly- prized pulse.
The crop is harvested before dead ripe, in order to avoid the loss due to breaking of pods. Temperature between 25 degree Celsius to 35 degree Celsius with dry weather is most preferred for Urad cultivation.
Soils with neutral pH and loam or clay soils are apt for Urad cultivations. Variety of seeds and field management are the key factors for the yield; it can achieve up to 800 kg to 1100 kg per acre with hybrid varieties. Urad crop improves soil fertility by adding atmospheric nitrogen into the soil.
India is the largest Urad producing and consuming country in the world. Yearly Urad production in the country is about 1.3 to 1.5 million tons. Urad production is about 10 percent of total pulses produced in India.
Top Urad producing countries are India, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, Japan, Bangladesh, Canada, Iran, Greece and East Africa.
Major Urad producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka and Punjab.
Major Urad exporting countries are Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Australia.
Local trading hubs for Black Gram in India are
Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad, Vijayawada)
Gujarat (Madosa, Himmatnagar, Talod, Rajkot, Junagar)
Punjab (Jalandar, Luhdiyana, Sangrur)
Madhya Pradesh (Indore, Bhopal, Vidisha, Sagar, Jhansi)
Maharashtra (Latur, Mumbai, Jalgaon, Akola, Nanded, Dhulia)
Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Hapur, Hatras, Ganjudhundwala, Aligarh)
Delhi, Chennai and Haryana(Sirsa).
Urad Trading Markets:Andhra Pradesh(Guntur, Vijayawada, West Godavari, ) Chhattisgarh(Bilaspur, Jashpur, Mahasamund, Raigarh, Bastar, Dantewada , Kanker, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Gujarat(Rajkot, Anand, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Talod, Bharuch, Sabarkantha, Modasa, Himatnagar, ) Karnataka(Bidar, Gulbarga, ) Madhya Pradesh(Sagar, Bhopal, Indore, Vidisha, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ujjain, Jhabua, ) Maharashtra(Mumbai, Jalna, Solapur, AMPC, Jalgaon, Latur Bazar, Akola Bazar, Beed, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Hingoli , Osmanabad , ) Odisha(Koraput, Rayagada, Malkangiri , Jagatsinghpur, Kalahandi, Junagarh , ) Punjab(Ludhiana, Jalandhar, sangrur, ) Rajasthan(Jaipur, ) Tamil Nadu(Chennai, Viluppuram, Tirunelveli, Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Thoothukudi(Tuticorin) , Thiruvarur, ) Telangana(Hyderabad, ) Uttar Pradesh(Kanpur, Aligarh, Hapur, Jhansi, Ganjdundwara, ) West Bengal(Nadia, Malda , )
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