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Wheat is a cereal grain, belonging to the Triticum family. From the grain’s kernel, a one-seeded fruit is obtained. This kernel is used to make flour which is globally consumed as an important staple food. Around 30000 varieties of wheat are cultivated around the world; and this makes wheat the second largest consumed cereal on earth.
Wheat contains maximum number of proteins (gluten) and it is mainly used to make bakery products like bread etc. It is also used as a feed crop for livestock.
The main advantages of wheat cultivation are that it produces very good yield per unit area. Wheat has a short growing period and the production is much easier than other grain crops, as it grows well in temperate regions.
Wheat was cultivated about thousand years ago to overcome the food shortage.
In the early stages of wheat cultivation, it needs cooler weather to thrive and ample amount of moisture as well. Warm weather is more suitable for wheat when the grain is formed.
The sowing of wheat in India is normally carried out during September-December in various states. The harvesting in India is done during January-February, March-April and April-May.
Sowing of wheat in the USA is done during September and October and the harvest is carried out during June, July and September.
India is the third largest producer of wheat globally, growing around 75 million tons annually. India leads the list in the area covered in production of wheat.
Major wheat producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
Global wheat production is around 585 million tons annually. Major wheat producing countries include European Union, China, India, Russia, United States, Canada, Ukraine, Australia, Pakistan and Turkey.
Major wheat exporting countries are Canada, United States, Australia, France, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Poland and Romania.
Egypt, Indonesia, Algeria, European Union, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Morocco, Philippines, Turkey and Bangladesh are the major wheat importing countries.
Local trading hubs for Wheat in India are:
Assam (Cacham, Darrang, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, Karbianglong, Karimganj, kokrajhar, Morigaon, Nawgoan, Nalbari, Sibsagar, Sonitpur)
Bihar (Purnea, Bhagalpur, Begusrai, Banka, Bhojpur, West Chamaparan, Gaya, Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Katihar, Khagaria, Kaimur, Munger, Muzzaffarpur, Nalanda, Nawada, Patna, Rohtas, Samastipur, Sheikpura, Saran, Siwan, Vaishali)
Uttar Pradesh (Buxar)
Chhatisgarh (Bastar, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Janigeer, Jashpur, Kanker, Korba, Korea, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Sarguja)
Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Amreli, Anand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Narmada, Navsari, Panchmahal, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surendranagar, Surat, Vadodara)
Haryana (Ambala, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jind, Jhajjar, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurushetra, Mohindargarh, Panipat, Panchkula, Roihtak, Sirsa, Sonepat, Yamunanagar)
Himachal Pradesh (Sirmour, Solan)
Jharkhand (Palamu, Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar)
Karnataka (Gadag, Koppal), Madhya Pradesh (Badwani, Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dewas, Dhar, Dindhori, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Indore, Katni, Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Shaopur, Shivpuri, Tikamgarh, Umariya, Ujjain, Vidisha)
Maharashtra (Ahmendnagar, Amravati, Aurangabad, Bhandara, Beed, Buldhana, Dhule, Hingoli, Jangaon, Jalna, Kolhapur, Latur, Nanded, Nasik, Nandurbar, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Pune, Raigad, Sangli, Satara, Solapur, Thane, Washim, Mumbai)
Manipur (Imphal East, Sambalpur)
Punjab (Amritsar, Bathinda, Faridkot, Fatehgarhsahib, Firozpur, Gurudaspur, Hoshiapur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiyana, Mansa, Moga, Mukatsar, Nawan shahar, Patiala, Ropar, Sangrur)
Rajasthan (Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara, Bharatpur, Bhilwara, Bikaner, Bundi, Baran, Chittorgarh, Dholpur, Dungarpur, Sri Ganaga Nagar, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jhalawar, Karauli, Kota, Swaimadhopur, Udaipur, Raj Samand, Tonk)
Uttaranchal (Haridwar, Nainital, Udham Singh nagar)
Uttar Pradesh (Agra, Aligarh, Azamgarh, Allahabad, Ambedkar Nagar, Auraiya, Badaun, Bagpat, Bahraich, Balrampur, Ballia, Banda, Barreily, Barabanki, Basti, Bijnaur, Bulandshahr, Chandauli, Deoria, Etah, Etawah, Faizabad, Fatehpur, Farikhabad, Firozabad, Gautambudh nagar, Gonda, Gorakpur, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Hardoi, Hatharas, Jalaun, Jaunpur, Jhansi, Jyothiba Phule Nagar, Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat, Kannauj, Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mau, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Pilibhit, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Rampur, Saharanpur, SantKAbir Nagar, Santravidas Nagar, Shajahanpur, Siddarth Nagar, Sitapur, Sonabhadra, Srawasti, Sultanpur, Unnao, Varanasi)
West Bengal (Birbhum, Cooch Behar, Danshik Dinajpur, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, Uttar Dinajpur), Chandigarh and Delhi.
Wheat is traded in the commodity futures market at NCDEX in India.
Internationally wheat is traded in Chicago (CBOT), Winnipeg Commodity Exchange and Kansas City Board of Trade.
Wheat Trading Markets:Assam(Jorhat, Hailakandi, Kamrup, Karimganj, Morigaon, Nawgaon, Sonitpur, Cachar, Darrang, Golaghat, Karbi Anglong, Kokrajhar, Sivasagar, Nalbari , ) Bihar(Gopalganj , Nawada, Patna, Purnea, West Champaran, Siwan, Saran, Bhagalpur, Samastipur, Vaishali , Nalanda, Khagaria , Sheikhpura, Katihar , Rohtas , Banka, Bhojpur, Jamui , Jehanabad, Munger, Gaya, Kaimur, ) Chandigarh(Chandigarh, ) Chhattisgarh(Surguja, Bilaspur, Jashpur, Korea(Koriya), Raigarh, Bastar, Rajnandgaon, Dantewada , Korba, Kanker, Janjgir-Champa, Dhamtari, Durg, ) Delhi(Delhi, ) Gujarat(Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Patan, Gandhinagar, Anand, Surat, Dahod(Veg. Market), Vadodara(Sayajipura), Amreli, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kutch, Mehsana, Navsari, Panchmahal, Sabarkantha, Surendranagar , Banaskantha, Narmada , ) Haryana(Karnal, Sirsa, Fatehabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Jind , Jhajjar, Mahendragarh, Sonipat, Hisar, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Ambala, Kaithal, Panchkula, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, ) Himachal Pradesh(Solan, Sirmaur , ) Karnataka(Gadag, Koppal, Raichur, Bijapur, Dharwad, Belgaum, ) Madhya Pradesh(Ganj Basoda, Indore, Shahpura(Jabalpur) , Vidisha, Umaria , Morena, Mandsaur, Ratlam, Ujjain, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Sehore, Satna, Rewa, Rajgarh, Raisen, Panna, Dhar, Guna , Harda, Jhabua, Khandwa, Mandla, Dewas, Khargone , Badwani(Barwani), Chhindwara, Gwalior, Shahdol, Bhind, Balaghat, Betul, Chhatarpur , Damoh, Katni , ) Maharashtra(Kolhapur, Amravati, Sangli, Mumbai, Jalna, Solapur, Parbhani, Latur Bazar, APMC Dindori, Beed, Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Dhule, Nashik, Pune, Satara , Hingoli , Nanded, Raigad , Washim, Bhandara, Buldhana, Nandurbar, Thane, Osmanabad , ) Manipur(Imphal, ) Punjab(Amritsar (Amritsar Mewa Mandi), Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, NawanShahar, Patiala, Rupnagar, sangrur, Mansa , Firozpur, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Sri Muktsar Sahib, ) Rajasthan(Sri Ganganagar, Jaipur, Baran, Bundi, Alwar, Begu, Udaipur(F&V), Pratapgarh, Bharatpur , Bikaner , Dholpur , Jaisalmer , Karauli , Sawai Madhopur , Tonk , Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Banswara, Jhalawar, Bhilwara, Dungarpur, ) Uttar Pradesh(Chandauli, Kanpur, Meerut, Agra, Aligarh, Fatehpur, Hathras, Jalaun, Maharaj ganj, Bareilly, Budaun , Bulandshahr , Etawah , Firozabad , Gautam Budh Nagar , Kanpur Dehat , Pilibhit, Etah, Farrukhabad , Bagpat, Ballia, Mau, Saharanpur, Lucknow, Azamgarh, Bijnor , Sambhal, Barabanki, Rampur, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Allahabad, Bahraich, Banda, Gonda , Hardoi , Amroha(Juotiba), Jhansi, Kannauj, Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Unnao, Raebareli, Sitapur, Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Ghaziabad, Sulthanpur, Deoria, Faizabad, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Varanasi, Siddharth Nagar, Sonabhadra, Basti , Auraiya , Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Shahjahanpur , Buxar, Shravasti, ) Uttarakhand(Haridwar, Nainital, Udham Singh Nagar, ) West Bengal(Murshidabad, Nadia, Uttar Dinajpur, Malda , Birbhum, Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, )
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